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Skytrax World Airline Star Rating

International air transport rating organisation Skytrax was established in 1989. It is a United Kingdom-based consultancy which runs an airline and airport review and ranking site. Skytrax World Airline Star Rating is recognised as a global Benchmark of airline standards around the world for it’s Airline and Airport Star Rating, the World Airline Awards and Airport Awards.



  Skytrax, have unique knowledge, expertise and experience of quality issues affecting the air transport industry.


Team members log hundreds of thousands of air miles every year across airlines worldwide, and have unique expertise and experience embracing in aircraft of “without fear or favour”.


Skytrax conducts research for commercial airlines, as well as taking surveys from international travelers to rate cabin staff, airports, airlines, airline lounges, in-flight entertainment, on-board catering, and several other elements of air travel. Apart from these evaluations, Skytrax has an airline forum where passengers give potential passengers insights and opinions about an airline. The website also hosts flight reviews, flight checks, and satisfaction surveys. 


The Star Rating uses a quality scale from 1-Star through to the exclusive 5-Star Airline award. Ratings are based on evaluation of product and service standards across the onboard and airport environments, using a unified and consistent rating system. It's worth noting that Airline Star Ratings are not associated with customer reviews, and are based on research by Skytrax Audit Office.



A brief explanation of  Star Rating levels is shown below:


  • To achieve a top 5-Star rating, the staff service or product standards must be either meeting or setting global best practice for the item under evaluation. For product analysis this is a clear, tangible item, and for service assessment we look for all aspects of excellence support by true consistency. (It is not necessary for an airline to achieve 5-Star for every element of the rating criteria)


  • The 4-Star rating represents where the airport / cabin staff service or product standards are meeting a good quality level (but not the best) for the relevant rating topic item. In some instances, a potential 5-Star rating may be lowered to 4-Star if the consistency is not being delivered.


  • The 3-Star rating is applied where staff service standards or product standards are fair or average. This may reflect some inconsistency or weakness in staff service, or poorer product standards in areas such as seating, IFE, catering etc.


  • The 2-Star rating is used where the service and/or product standards do not meet required quality levels for the typical operation format of the airline (ie. full service or low-cost carrier). For the airline’s staff service, a 2-Star rating is applied where service is poor, inconsistent and/or unfriendly.


  • The 1-Star rating is rarely applied, but it signifies that product and/or service standards are totally unacceptable (ie. very poor). In some cases where a specific product or service item required to meet international expectation is not provided, Skytrax may apply the 1-Star rating.


Airline Star Ratings are known as a global benchmark of world airline standards, developed through many years of professional experience and Skytrax specialist, qualitative knowledge of the airline industry.

The World Airline Audit that may be used as part of a rating analysis delivers a complex quality analysis across all areas of Product and Service that customer experience across the airport and onboard travel experience, with rating accuracy supported by the Skytrax unified and global approach.

First Zero Covid experimental restaurant is in Alsace

2nd March 2021 - 10:57 am by Emilien Lacombe

The Maison des Têtes in Colmar is the first innovative restaurant that concentrates unique technological solutions in the world around 5 areas of prevention.

Given the current health context and the risk observed around the common meal, highlighted by numerous epidemiological studies, players in the field are mobilizing to provide the best solutions before the reopening that everyone wants to happen soon. The starred restaurant “La Maison des Têtes” in Colmar, run by chef Eric and his wife Marilyn Girardin, has become a small “innovation laboratory”. Alsace in general and Colmar in particular are the places where the first cases would have been identified as early as November 2019!


The epidemiological data are clear

“The Comcor Study: where do the French get infected? confirmed the hypotheses of our 3 scientists who published a well-documented article a month earlier in Infodujour “les repas coupables? ».

Professor Fontanet of the Scientific Council and the Pasteur Institute concluded that “meals play a central role in contaminations, whether in a family, friendly or less professional environment”.


The risk of eating out
An international study published in September on hospital caregivers in 67 countries and 41 U.S. states showed that exposure to patients with IDVOC-19 was associated with a moderate adjusted over-risk of 140%. This over-risk is 1620% for eating out in restaurants outside of work!

Numerous examples of contaminations in the context of shared meals in 2020.

A well-documented cluster occurred in February 2020 during a dinner in the municipality of Capannori in a 70 square meter room (Lucca), Italy. Three guests coming from the Milanese region in the 14 days prior to the dinner were symptomatic at this meal (coughing). Out of 49 participants, 26 people developed one or more symptoms. Three subjects were hospitalized and treated and one died. The guests were placed around 5 tables and mingled by changing places during the evening.

Many clusters with shared meals were described in the press. For example, in August 2020, 51 out of 72 gendarmes of the Mobile Gendarmerie squadron of Tarbes tested positive several days after their departure from French Polynesia. On July 31, an evening at the “red pepper” restaurant is organized and on Monday, August 3 and a farewell drink could be at the origin of the contagion to COVID-19 according to observers.

Numerous weddings, birthdays and other family events where people eat and drink together have led to clusters between July and October in France and abroad. That of a wedding on Lake Annecy showed that out of 93 people on board a boat (88 guests, 2 catering staff and 3 crew members), 21 were contaminated. One employee of the wedding caterer was identified as positive. But by the time he found out, he had already worked for another event in the Ain, where 40 people were present. Two guests tested positive on the second event. The caterer’s employee was probably responsible for the contamination of the cascading guests.


Technical solutions unique in the world in Alsace!
Why Alsace? Because more than 21 million tourists visited it from 2017 to 2018, that constitutes more than 39,000 jobs, a major tourist axis. Colmar is also the most popular destination for European tourists in 2020. European Best Destinations

A working group was set up at the end of September 2020 on the potential risks and possible good practices to be implemented in the restaurant business. This group, led by project manager Victor Vincentz, a member of the IUVA (International Ultraviolet Association) network followed by AFNOR and the Grand Est region, has gathered the best technical solutions around it. The working group will very quickly get closer to a major name in Alsatian catering, which has a 5-star Relais Châteaux hotel, a brasserie and a Michelin-starred restaurant, and this choice is no coincidence. This hotel and restaurant complex is located in the heart of Alsace, a tourist area that is very popular with Chinese tourists and which was hit hard by Covid in March 2020 and possibly as early as November 2019.

This place of history and gastronomy is “La Maison des Têtes“. It is run by the master restaurateur and starred Eric Girardin and Marilyn Girardin his wife.

The entire working group wanted to highlight possible solutions within the framework of a future recovery plan for professionals in the restaurant and food industry.

“These solutions are supported by the results of an experiment launched with COMETE (Covid Marseille Environmental Testing Expertise) and the BMPM in Marseilles in a configuration of 4 ill soldiers (CT<27) at tables who spoke for 30 minutes without masks,” explains Dr. Wendling, Occupational Health Prevention Physician and member of the Scientific and Citizen Committee of the City of Strasbourg. Dr. Wendling volunteered to accompany the working group and the project. “The experimental report, which has not yet been published, is rather reassuring and allows us to make recommendations that are consistent with the recommendations of the Ministry of Labor in the restaurant and catering sector. The taking of meals in essential companies such as supermarkets has never stopped and if our recommendations are followed and things are well done, my experience shows that we have no contamination to deplore”.


Five axes of proposals and actions
1-Hand and surface hygiene: from the customer entrance to the table, the kitchen and the sanitary facilities, hygiene is thought globally.

Thus, from the entrance of the restaurant, the contactless GHA dispenser is clearly visible with its signage inviting its use upon arrival. On each table, a small individual bottle of GHA is made available to the customer.

Hand hygiene is also a priority for the Network of Hand Hygiene Observers (#ROHM) supported by CPIAS and REPIAS and hospital hygiene experts. A point of enormous progress for the French according to Pr Didier Pittet, even more important than the mask according to him. This citizen network led by Dr. Wendling and sponsored by Dr. Pierre Parneix is mobilizing, with the wish for a strong action at the national level, particularly in the public space and around the meal.

“In our restaurant, the kitchen equipment is state-of-the-art with a dedicated workstation for each cook, sanitary facilities for the customers, all equipped with automatic non-contact detection faucets (GROHE brand),” says Eric Girardin. “The towels are single-use. There is a non-contact soap dispenser. The garbage cans have a foot control”.

“All this equipment is important,” explains Dr. Wendling, “because transmission through soiled hands could be a neglected route according to some scientists. A very recent study published in Nature evokes this hypothesis. Hand hygiene, which according to the #ROHM survey can be improved in France, is therefore an essential point in the public space, around food in the food trade and especially around meals at home and in restaurants”.

In the Michelin-starred gastronomic section, Eric Girardin also offers a unique seeding menu that is carried by each customer. This can be planted in his garden or in a pot: it will give aromatic herbs! A nice gift full of conviviality.


2- A self-decontaminating coating: Coversafe

Door handles touched by all customers are treated with a self-decontaminating coating, an antimicrobial protection solution that is a self-adhesive film with specific characteristics. They are installed in the washrooms, in the common area of the restaurant and hotel to reduce the contamination factor. CoversafeTM is manufactured and marketed by Gergonne Industrie and uses Pylote’s natural antimicrobial technology. It claims the destruction of bacteria, the SARS-CoV-2 strain (the virus responsible for COVID-19) and viruses such as gastroenteritis and H1N1 influenza. CoversafeTM is a solution that acts continuously and permanently, thus significantly reducing the risk of microbial transmission.


According to Pr Christine Roques, President of the Afnor S95S commission (in charge of the NF S 90-700 standard), and University Professor – Hospital Practitioner in Toulouse: “these surfaces represent a complementary tool to disinfectants, each with properties linked to specific conditions of use. In the case of surfaces claiming biocidal activity, the principle corresponds to a lasting maintenance of activity over time. This gradual and continuous reduction of the bioload on surfaces would thus contribute to the reduction/breakdown of the transmission chain”.


3- Anti-splash design table dividers : Nora distribution

While the aerosol emission from the speech of an asymptomatic person probably contains very few viral particles, that of a spit may contain several tens or even hundreds of thousands of virions. Its behaviour is ballistic over a few tens of centimetres and the proposed separating barrier protects the plate, glass and cutlery of the opposite guests. The decree of January 28, 2021 for the collective catering provides moreover that the same table can only gather people coming and having booked together, within a limit henceforth fixed at 4 people instead of 6. A minimum distance of 2 m must be guaranteed between each seated person, except if a fixed or removable wall ensures a physical separation.

Physical separation also reduces the risk of objects or food passing from one space to another (such as bread, which is served as a single portion in this case). The structure was produced by Nora distribution headed by Audrey Altmeyer-Stoll, who was involved early on in the production of visors and Plexiglas wall solutions against COVID-19: “this wall is very quickly assembled by interlocking and is put in place at the customer’s request whenever people from different social bubbles meet. Its appearance is attractive, discreet, user-friendly, and also allows the QR code of the menus to be placed on the front. It could evolve in size and shape on demand”.


4- Implementation of UV LED Trilogy solution at different stages by Concept Light

Of course, the wearing of a mask or even a face shield as a complement by all personnel is required. As we have seen, staff can be a source of theoretical contamination. The risk is further reduced by innovative complementary disinfection technology. Between the reception of cold food such as Gravlax salmon, beef or salmon tartar, fruits and vegetables (salads, carrots, tomatoes, apples) and their service at the table, UVLed disinfection is systematic. This process is already known in the food industry for many years for the treatment of fruits, vegetables, fresh products; here we are in UV LED technology with various wavelengths and above all without mercury. Thus the incoming parcels can be processed before being stored.

Above all, the restaurant has a tunnel that is unique in the world, allowing almost instant processing of each plate that is set up before being served at the table. SterilUV Compact has an instantaneous ignition by detection: it claims to be effective in less than 5 seconds on bacteria and viruses, including Sars-Cov 2 with validation by the CNRS and Barrand laboratories on bacteria (staphylococcus aureus). Concept Light led by Victor Vincentz implemented the UV LED solution on this project at the request of the restaurant owner at the exit of the prepared dishes. A transparent secure tunnel that protects the server from UV rays that are harmful to the skin was built by Nora Distribution for a practical and quick solution validated by the restaurateur in his daily use. In addition, we can equip the dumbwaiters with the UVLed device allowing the decontamination of the upright plates during the trip from one floor to another.


The main weapon

The solution for disinfecting all surfaces with a portable trilogy LED UV device allows the disinfection of bank card readers, tables, touch screens or objects touched in common to avoid any contamination between employees or customers: this disinfection is carried out before and after service to guarantee a healthy environment. This process has been validated by the Haguenau Hospital’s Hygiene Operations Team on a test with bacterial contamination carried out on 40 smartphones (Dr. Olivier Meunier).

Surface disinfection is also the main anti-Covid weapon used by COMETE’s NRCB expert unit (with either ozone or UV technology). This unit has a database of more than 20,000 wastewater, air and surface samples. Ambient air analyses in public buildings have never been positive, whereas surfaces are very often identified as contaminated (door handles, work surfaces, elevator buttons, mice or keyboards…). Disinfection becomes essential to eliminate any presence of SARS-COV-2 and to guarantee users a healthy environment for prevention or treatment. The path between a surface, the soiled hand and the mask, mouth or eyes is short! This is why a perfect and fast disinfection of surfaces is desirable. A recent study reveals that the hand route seems more important than previously thought.


5- Saliva pre-testing: EasyCov by Skillcell

“A scientific study published on January 12, 2021 concludes that saliva sampling appears to be an equally sensitive and less expensive alternative to nasopharyngeal swabs for the collection of clinical specimens for the detection of SARS-CoV-2? according to Dr. Wendling. The clinical performance of the EasyCov test on a series of asymptomatic subjects with respect to both diagnoses (RT-PCR on saliva and nasopharyngeal swabs) is one of the best currently available, all tests combined, with a sensitivity of 93.3% and a specificity of 100%.


While waiting for the vaccine

The working group hopes that this EasyCov saliva test will be available in the analysis laboratories of the city of Colmar and in Alsace as it has started in Belgium in the municipality of Hainaut, the city of Bagnolet for the municipal staff or the hospital of Le Creusot with very good results. Eric Girardin indicates that “we could propose regular testing for all staff on a voluntary basis, or even inform customers of this option before they come to enjoy the restaurant, and this in complete safety while waiting for the vaccine to allow them to return to a normal life”. EasyCov’s production is supported by the Eastern France region: its president, Jean Rottner, plans to make the vaccine available to high schools, universities, and cultural and living spaces as early as mid-December.

The Marseilles region has also recently been considering reopening EasyCov under the name “COVID FREE”, a project led by teams of scientists from the IHU Méditerranée, Martine Vassal, President of the Aix-Marseille-Provence metropolitan area and the Bouches-du-Rhône department, and Bernard Marty, President of UMIH 13. A project taken as far as the Ministry of Health.

In Alsace? According to Victor Vincentz, the project has been completed: “in addition to saliva testing, which could be implemented but which is never 100% reliable, our material and technological solutions enable us to propose to launch into the experiment with a security of the potential human or food source via perfect hand and surface hygiene and a security of transmission by sputum. Let us recall that a vaccinated or falsely negatively tested subject could theoretically contaminate both the kitchen and the customers. Barrier and food hygiene solutions are therefore, in our opinion, useful complements”.


The partners of the project

  • Concept Light: Alsatian company which offers a range of UV Led including STERILUV Compact. This restoration device, which can be used in many sectors, has demonstrated its effectiveness in inactivating CoV-2-SARS by reducing viral infectivity by more than 6 log10.

  • Nora distribution: an Alsatian company that makes transparent separations of tables, counters and any custom-made parts in Plexiglas or transparent plastic on request, which is at the origin of the prototype of a transparent secure tunnel for exposure.

  • Coversafe: CoversafeTM is a self-adhesive film with exceptional anti-microbial characteristics. The CoversafeTM antimicrobial film is developed and marketed by Gergonne Industrie. It incorporates Pylote’s natural and revolutionary technology.

  • EasyCov, a 100% French test is the product of a consortium: the CNRS-SYSDIAG of Montpellier, the company VOGO and the company SKILLCELL subsidiary ALCEN, which markets the test. Finally, FIRALIS, which is in Alsace, has invested 400m² of premises provided by the CCI Sud-Alsace. It has the capacity to manufacture, for the moment, one million tests per month.

  • Menu card to be seeded: NATEVA le papier ensemencé a responsible and unique solution.


Contact project manager : Victor Vincentz – (33) 3 89 21 09 15 – Zero Covid Project Manager in the catering industry.

Dr Wendling declares that he has no interest in the private partners mentioned in this article.

Visit Ferrara, Italy: Art, History and Beauty of Renaissance

Visit and discover Ferrara, a beautiful Renaissance city and UNESCO World Heritage Site: discover one of the most beautiful cities of Italy. Walk-in "Old City" Ferrara, then go by the street Via Delle Volte. Have a pause, take coffee then head to Cattedrale di San Giorgio and then visit the palace of the Palazzo Skifanoia, wherein explore the Salone dei Mesi (Salon of the Months): one the most secret paradise of North Italy and so on ...

You will agree that even in the most modest city in Italy there can be something magical. Although the city of Ferrara is not a small city, it is famous for its almost 9 km long ancient walls. A city with palaces from the 14th and 15th centuries and stunning cathedrals are ideal for romantic walks in the center. In the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, Ferrara was a city equal in value to Milan, Florence, and Venice.

Ferrara is located in the Italian region of Emilia-Romagna, located on the territory of a large plain in the Po River Valley, 50 km from the sea. Ferrara is a magnificent city of art and one of the capitals of the Renaissance.

One of the highlights of Ferrara is its architecture and layout, which froze between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance. To feel the past, just take a city tour or take a walk along with the long Via Delle Volte or other old streets of the old town. Here, under the feet, are old cobblestones, and above your head are the passages between the buildings, which form a series of arched tunnels. Delle Volte, unlike many such picturesque medieval streets, is not oversaturated with shops and other tourist attractions.

To discover the beauty of the city of Ferrara and feel the soul of the old city, you will need to walk to the historic center of Ferrari, which is included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. The historical center has largely preserved its medieval appearance and layout in the Renaissance style.

The brightest page in the history of Ferrara is connected with the dukes of d'Este: this highly educated, aristocratic family, striving for luxury and self-assertion, built magnificent buildings here during the Renaissance. Generation d'Este ruled the city of the 3rd century.

The main attraction of Ferrera, dating from the Middle Ages, remains the Cathedral of San Giorgio (Cattedrale di San Giorgio, XII century), dedicated to St. Ferrara George.

The Italian apiector and sculptor Master Nicolaus, who worked in the 12th century, built the cathedral to the first level of galleries - only the central nave towered above the others. In the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, the western façade received that exquisite decoration that we see today, but, paying tribute to the talent of Nikolaus, the newly built portal preserved the Romanesque entrance that he built.

Initially, the main was considered non-Western entrance, and the south, facing the trade area. It was called the Pilgrim Gate (Porta dei Pellegrini), as it ended via San Romano (Via San Romano), which starts from the port on the Po River. The wanderers who sailed past Ferrara came to bow to St. George. Another name for the southern portal is the Gate of the Months (Porta dei Mesi): it is decorated with figures of people engaged in a certain business according to the calendar.

Ferrara amazes many tourists with its unobtainable and mysterious castles.  Casa Romei dating back to the 15th century is among these beautiful palaces. The palace where Lucrezia Borgia lived after her wedding with the Duke Alfonso d’Este in 1502. The interiors have not survived but in the halls you can see the frescoes and sculptures of the Renaissance.

Another no less beautiful palace is the Palazzo Skifanoia.

The castle began to be built in 1385 under the Marquis of Alberto d'Este V. But the decisive role in the fate of the main residence of Estense was played by the Marquis of Borso (1413-1471), who expanded the work not only for the renovation but also for the decoration of the palace, which attracted a lot of them - Pietro Benvenuti degli Ordini and Biagio Rossetti. He ordered the construction of the so-called Salon of the Months - the Marquis expected from the pope the awarding of the title of Duke of Ferrara (which happened in 1471) and prepared a luxurious hall for the celebration. Walls with a length of 540 m2 were painted with frescoes dedicated to 12 months of the year, and the topic is read both vertically and horizontally. The highest strip represents the mythological cycle according to the astrological treatises of that era.

At the second level, you can distinguish the symbols of the zodiac signs in the circle of triads (small constellations). The following are scenes from the life of Borso d’Este himself, where his acts of different years are depicted, which are located by the months in which they took place.


Palazzo dei Diamanti
The only secular structure awarded the marble cladding in Ferrara is the Palazzo dei Diamanti (1492). The name is translated as “The Diamond Palace” and is associated with the fact that the facade of the building is decorated with 8500 stones resembling faceted diamonds. Now the National Art Gallery is located in the palace building (Pinacoteca Nazionale), where the works of artists from Ferrara from the Middle Ages to the XVIII century are exhibited.


Palio Ferrara
The traditional races of the "palio" in Ferrara were first mentioned in the code of laws of 1279. They were attended by men, women, and riders on unbridled and bareback horses and donkeys. On the frescoes (XV century) of the Palazzo Skifanoia in the Salon of the Months, in the sector dedicated to April, you can see the participants of the palio, and the Duke of Borso d’Este - in the head of the jury.  

Biggest Airport in the World 2020

Istanbul's new airport is located 35 km from the city. This is the aviation center of Europe of the future. Its opening is the main aviation event this year: a mega-hap that expands opportunities today and lays strong foundations for the growth of air travel over the next decade. This project is striking in its scale.


  • This is the biggest airport under one crunch.


  • Area - 1 million 30 thousand square meters.


  • Duty-free shops occupy about 52 thousand square meters.


  • The area of the business lounge is 22 thousand square meters.


  • 500 drains in one huge hall of unification on 13 islands of registration,


  • 22 passport control booth


  • 143 teletraps and exactly so many flights will be served through teletrap,


  • 500 aircraft parking spaces


  • 900 million passengers a year


  • 200 million passengers per year total capacity


  • 3 parallel tracks - runways at the time of opening


  • 6 runways by 2025


  • 460 rooms at the airport hotel


Investments in the project amounted to 10.2 billion dollars. In the first 25 years of operation, it will bring a profit of $ 22.2 billion.


  • 143 sleeves at the terminals


  • Flights to 350 destinations


  • Security will be provided by 3,500 guards and 6,000 surveillance cameras.


  • The harbour can simultaneously host 114 aircraft.


A luggage system with a length of 42 km is capable of handling 28.9 thousand units of goddess per hour, 77 boarding gates, 114 self-check-in kiosks, 51 self-service check-in kiosks.


311 parking spaces have been created for aircraft parking and in the future, their number will be up to 500 units.


A bus service was organized for the delivery of the passengers. This year the construction of a new metro line will end. Around the airport, there will be large parking lots with an area of 40 thousand mosquitoes.


After landing in the globes, the high tower of the dispatch center is filled with the shape of a Tulipan, a project that received the main international architectural award in 2016.


In 2023, the airport will become not only the largest but also the most advanced in terms of technology. It will have about 3 thousand screens and monitors installed, along with cutting-edge technology including an automatic decision-making system, smart kiosks, automatic queue management systems, check-in counters and bogey durable devices. For passengers arriving from EU countries, safety control is excluded when transferring to other flights.